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ABOUT DYSLEXIA

Symptoms of Dyslexia

Symptoms of Dyslexia :

 

As a Preschooler

  • confusion between different sounds
  • may not have developed a preference for left or right-handedness
  • enjoys being read to, but shows little or no interest in letters or words
  • difficulty with learning rhymes, and other phonological skills
  • has difficulty ,or takes a long time, acquiring letter names and sounds

 

When in kindergarten or primary school

Reading

  • slow and hesitant reading sometimes with little change of intonation
  • difficulty tracking – may miss words or skip lines
  • read from middle of words
  • numerous errors in reading

 

Some Common Reading Errors

  • confusion of short vowel sounds  lid-led
    • transposing of letters – left – felt
    • misreading words of similar visual appearance help – held
    • either missing out or adding in little words such as the – and – but
    • reversing letters or whole words —
      • was – saw
      • on – no
  • b/d reversals
    • dad – bad
    • buffy – duffy
  • unable to sound out or blend unfamiliar words
  • wild guesses eg. musk for music
  • omit
    • Suffixes eg ing, -ed, -ly / Prefixes eg un- (unhappy read as happy)
  • substitute words of similar meaning
    • road for street
  • Tend to mumble when reading multi-syllabic words
  • Struggle – slow laborious reading
  • Lose track of reading resulting in poor comprehension or inability to follow sequence

 

Spelling

  • Greater difficulty with spelling and writing
  • Bizarre eg. spelling morke for smoke
  • Phonetic but unable to internalise spelling rules
  • Poor auditory discrimination of vowels
  • Spelling words without vowels
  • Omit letters limp – lip
  • insert letters  what – whant
  • Transpose letters  bird -brid
  • Reversals b/d, p/q
  • Invert letters n/u, m/w, d/q, b/p
  • Very often not able to match letters to their sounds
  • Spelling tends to remain poor or unreliable often into adulthood

 

Writing

  • Difficulties in expressive writing, organising thoughts and ideas into words
  • Difficulty finding right words
  • Grammatical structure
  • punctuation
  • Illegible handwriting, various sized letters floating between lines
  • Inability to write against margins
  • Difficulties copying from board
  • Often scolded for untidiness, carelessness, inattentiveness

 

Dyslexia in older children or teenagers
The types of problems experienced in reading might be:

  • Hesitant and laboured reading, especially out loud
  • Omitting or adding extra words
  • Reading at a reasonable rate, but with a low level of comprehension
  • Failure to recognise familiar words
  • Missing a line or reading the same line twice
  • Losing the place or using a finger or marker to keep the place

 

The types of problems in written work might be:

  • Poor standard of written work compared to oral ability
  • Poor handwriting with badly formed letters
  • Good handwriting but production of work extremely slow
  • Badly set out work with spellings crossed out several times
  • Spells the same word differently in one piece of work
  • Has difficulty with punctuation and grammar
  • Confuses upper and lower case letters
  • Writes a great deal but loses the thread
  • Has difficulty taking notes in lessons
  • Finds organisation of work and personal timetable difficult
  • Clearly knows more than he can commit to paper

 

Types of problems associated with Math:

  • Difficulty remembering tables and formulae
  • Finds sequencing difficult
  • Confuses signs such as + and x
  • Can think at a high level in mathematics, but needs a calculator to remember basic facts
  • Misreads questions that include words
  • Confuses directions – left and right
  • Finds mental arithmetic at speed very difficult