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OG APPROACH

What is taught at MSL Centre?

The centre uses the Orton-Gillingham Approach to treat dyslexia.

 

All our clients will be taught explicitly:

  • Sound-symbol correspondence
  • Reading and spelling rules
  • Syllabication patterns
  • Punctuation, grammar and vocabulary
  • Writing skills including sentence structure and handwriting where needed

 

Our philosophy, in Gillingham’s words, is to teach to the intellects, as fast as possible but as slowly as necessary for useful and stable learning.

 

With appropriate education, dyslexia need only be a temporary impediment.

 

While early intervention is highly desirable, it is never too late to learn. Successful results have followed intervention at any age, even in adults.

 

OG is multisensory – simultaneously – visual/auditory/kinesthetic/tactile.  This is the characteristic that distinguishes OG from phonics programs as well as some of the OG-based programs.  Every part of the OG lesson utilizes multisensory procedures for inputting and reinforcing or reviewing information – card drill, decoding words, spelling,  introduction of concepts, dictation of sentences, reading fluency, and reading comprehension.  All of these procedures are also neurologically sound.

 

OG is phonetic/alphabetic/morphemic/syntactic/semantic.  Most of the programs have the phonics but differ in the way they address the syllabic, morphemic, syntactic and semantic levels.  Additionally, the emphasis of these programs are on reading and not on spelling.  If they do address spelling, their scope and sequence causes more confusion.  Overall, these phonics program are not structured and sequential.

 

OG is linguistically sound.  This is  a broader view of the complexity of OG and how it differs from other programs.  It looks at the grammatical,  phonological, and the morphological components of language.  As such, OG is ideal for teaching ELL children and adults (and general education students) and represents a more comprehensive and multimodal way of addressing the rading and spelling needs of dyslexics students.

 

OG is neurologically sound.  Multisensory techniques are derived from an understanding of the neurological basis of learning and more specifically reading and spelling.

 

OG is based on best teaching practices or principles.  OG differentiates for  learners and their styles of learning.  OG provides a structured and sequential format moving from concrete to abstract and from simple to complex.  There is sufficient repetition until a certain level of automaticity is demonstrated.  OG has built-in scaffolding techniques throughout the instructional process.  Because of this characteristic, OG is applicable for ALL students.  Teachers can also use the principles of OG to teach science, math, social studies, etc.

 

OG is not a program but an approach.  This is a critical difference between OG and other phonics programs.  A program is not geared to the needs of an individual student.   It tends not to be diagnostic/prescriptive (and, hence, it is not clinical).  There is very little multisensory procedures.  Flexibility is not evidenced in programs.

 

OG is flexible.  OG is inherently flexible as it must be when one considers the needs of the dyslexic child.  It can be used in one-on-one settings, small group settings and whole classrooms.  As a result, it is an excellent approach for the RTI model.  It should be used in Tier One for all children.  If some students evidence problems, OG in small groups can provide additional help in Tier Two.  At times, a few students need more intensive help which OG will provide in Tier Three.

 

OG is emotionally and socially sound.  As the students achieve success in learning, not only does their self-esteem improves but also their way of interacting with peers and adults.  They begin to look at themselves differently.  OG helps students to identify their areas of strengths and helps student develop compensatory strategies which gives them a sense of empowerment.  In other words, every part of the OG framework is geared to the enhancement of self-esteem – multisensory procedures, correction procedures, teacher verbalizations during instruction, structured and sequential progression, and integration with other areas of reading/spelling and writing.

 

OG is structured, sequential, cumulative and repetitive.  OG is different from other phonics programs because it provides structured and sequential learning experiences.  There is also sufficient repetition to enhance automaticity  and the practice is provided in many different formats to prevent boredom.

 

OG is clinical.  OG is diagnostic/prescriptive.  OG trained teachers are somewhat analogous to doctors who must assess the symptoms, plan a treatment program and then implement the treatment program.  The treatment program may change based on how the patient has responded  to the treatment.  OG requires that practitioners assess, plan a lesson based on this assessment, then implemtn the lesson while noting issued/concerns, revise the lesson and lesson implementation based on what has happened previously.  Also, a new lesson plan is developed based on what happened in the preceding lesson.

 

OG is a vehicle for integrating thinking skills, vocabulary development, writing skills, and content subjects.  OG can be used to enhance thinking and writing skills as well as reinforce concepts in math, science, and social studies.

 

OG is efficient.  From one activity such as decoding words in isolation, a teacher can differentiate, teach tracking skills, nurture vocabulary development, reinforce grammar skills, and promote development of analogical skills.  From the learned word section of the lesson, a teacher can teach far/near point copying and help students to identify the unfair parts of the words.  Dictation provides an opportunity not only to reinforce spelling skills in the sentence leel but also to teach punctuation, capitalization, grammar, sentence structures, paragraphing skills, and creative writing.

 

OG makes connections between reading, spelling, writing and oral language.  This is not the case for many of the other phonics or basal programs.  The basal programs may impact decoding skills but are not structured well for spelling.  For many basal and phonics programs, the focus is on reading and not spelling.  OG sees the connections between reading and spelling.  There  is little recognition that spelling   is dependent on reading for building visual memory.  By the same token, spelling instruction reinforce reading skills.  

 

OG is a powerful instructional approach for teaching reading and spelling.  It is the grandfather of all other multisensory structures language programs and has been proven to be effective for over 80 years.

 

OG is financially or fiscally sound.  Schools do not need to spend so much money on basal programs or other multisensory structured language program kits. With the exception of teacher training expenses, the cost of the OG reading and spelling instructional approach is very reasonable.  It is important for schools to invest in OG teacher training and provide support to the teachers.